The yearly toll is nearly 1,300 deaths and almost 6,000 nonfatal gunshot wounds - majority intentional.
Southern states and parts of the Midwest had the highest rate of firearm homicides among children.
"This article provides the most comprehensive examination of current firearm-related deaths and injuries among children in the United States to date", the team wrote. Among older kids, homicides typically happened during disputes with their peers, the study also found. These injuries were either from a firearm-related assault, an act of self-harm, or from unintentional injury.
The CDC analysis also looked at deaths on a state level and found District of Columbia and Louisiana to have the highest rates of child firearm deaths. The grim national statistics are even more startling when considered from an global perspective: the U.S. now accounts for 91 percent of all child firearm-related deaths (aged 0 to 14) among high-income countries.
"Firearm injuries are a leading cause of death among USA children aged one to 17 years and contribute substantially each year to premature death, illness and disability of children", said CDC's Katherine Fowler, who led the study.
This may be why Dr. Ruth Abaya, an assistant professor of pediatrics in the division of Emergency Medicine at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, told CBS News that while the child gun death and injury study published Monday was "staggering", the results were, "unfortunately, not surprising".
Limitations to the data include that unintentional firearm deaths may be "significantly underreported", as well as potential misclassification bias among certain racial and ethnic groups in death certificate data and that the data is not nationally representative, but based on states with National Violent Death Reporting System funding from 2003 to 2013. That's 10 times higher than the rate for whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders, the researchers said.
"It is important to note that firearm injuries and especially deaths are typically not isolated events", said Alex Piquero, a criminology researcher at the University of Texas at Dallas who wasn't involved in the study.
The older the children, the higher the rates.
Many gun suicides were related to stress and relationship problems with a partner, friend or family member, Fowler explained.
"Public health research is fundamental for understanding the problem and developing scientifically sound solutions", said the study's lead author, Katherine Fowler of the CDC.
For more on children and guns, visit the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence.
"Firearm-related injuries contribute substantially each year to premature death, illness and disability of children".
Shootings kill or injure at least 19 US children each day, with boys, teenagers and blacks most at risk, according to a government study that paints a bleak portrait of persistent violence.
Conversely, the number of child suicides fell from 2002 to 2007 (-23%, annual percent change= -4.2, P 0.05), but then increased 60% from 2007 to 2014 (annual percent change=6.3, P 0.05).
He added the agent of the disease would be the kinetic energy from a bullet that is firing out of a gun.
There are ways in which guns can be made not so easily accessible to children, Hargarten said.