"These contracts will support 16,000 jobs here in Britain and will create opportunities for thousands of SMEs".
A partnership featuring Carillion has been commissioned for two of the projects.
Carillon Company shares had fallen by 70 per cent after its chief executive stepped down and it admitted it will take £845m of write-downs on some of its largest projects.
In November previous year, ministers said the line should serve the existing central station in Sheffield, after proposals to run trains to the Meadowhall shopping centre were set aside.
But critics have warned this will mean homes on the new Shimmer housing estate in nearby Mexborough being bulldozed.
The winning designers will work with HS2 Ltd to develop and refine the detailed plans for three new stations, at Birmingham Curzon Street, Birmingham Interchange and London's Old Oak Common, as well as a major expansion of London Euston.
A number of foreign firms were successful in bidding for the work, including Swedish-based Skanska, French company Bouygues Travaux and Austria's Strabag.
Scotland will benefit from a new high-speed rail line which will create business opportunities, jobs and skills, according to UK Transport Secretary Chris Grayling.
Grayling said: "The progress we are making with HS2 is clear evidence that the government is delivering on its commitments and is getting on with building the infrastructure needed to build a stronger, fairer, more prosperous Britain".
Carillion gave nervous shareholders some reassurance today as it won two big contracts to work on the HS2 high-speed rail line and added to the roster of City advisers helping it to cut costs and improve cash flow.
"As well as providing desperately needed new seats and better connecting our major cities, HS2 will help rebalance our economy".
"We will now press ahead with building the line, while continuing to ensure affected communities get appropriate support and are treated with fairness, compassion and respect".
A Department for Transport spokesman said Mr Byng's claims were "incorrect" and insisted: "We are keeping a tough grip on costs and the project is on time and on budget at £55.7bn".
Joe Rukin, of the Stop HS2 campaign, said: "The case for HS2 has been invented by the very cheerleaders who intend to rake in billions of taxpayers' money which is desperately needed elsewhere, so it really is time to ditch this huge white elephant before it is too late".
The infrastructure investment covers the main civil engineering work on the first phase of HS2 between London and Birmingham - including construction of tunnels, bridges, embankments and viaducts.
While Phase One is due for completion in 2026, it has also been announced that work extending the line from the West Midlands to the West Coast Main Line south of Crewe should be completed by 2027, six years earlier than previously planned.
Grayling also confirmed the final leg of HS2, or phase 2, covering the stretches to Manchester and Leeds.
"If we want high-quality infrastructure for the future were going to have to invest it, we're going to have to spend money", he told BBC Radio 4's Today programme.