The latest iteration - the third ban that Trump has ordered - blocks various people from eight countries - Syria, Libya, Iran, Yemen, Chad, Somalia, North Korea and Venezuela. Lower courts had said people from those nations with a claim of a "bona fide" relationship with someone in the United States could not be kept out of the country.
Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Sonia Sotomayor said they would have denied the administration's request.
"It is a devastating blow to everyone who has stood up to these Islamophobic Muslim bans since their initiation in January", said Karen Tumlin, legal director at National Immigration Law Center, an immigration rights group that is challenging the travel ban.
Lawyers for Hawaii, one of the challengers to the travel bans, said there was no reason for the Supreme Court to back away from the "equitable determination, dutifully adhered to by the court below", that it had already made. The second version of the ban was permitted to go into limited effect in June after review by the Supreme Court, but key provisions only last for 90 and 120 days.
In a separate challenge out of Maryland brought by, among others, the International Refugee Assistance Project, US District Court Judge Theodore D. Chuang issued a similar order also partially enjoining the ban in a case that is now pending before the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals will hold a hearing in Seattle, Washington on December 6, and the Richmond, Virginia-based 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has its hearing on December 8 to determine the legality of the travel ban.
Both appeals courts are dealing with the issue on an accelerated basis, and the Supreme Court noted it expects those courts to reach decisions "with appropriate dispatch".