Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov told reporters on a conference call that Putin and Trump had also spoken about establishing contacts with North Korea. It then added that, "the two presidents also discussed working together to resolve the very risky situation in North Korea".
"We're going to see what happens with North Korea".
The Kremlin made a point of noting that Mr Trump initiated the call.
Mr Trump's first year in office has been overshadowed by questions about his campaign's links to Russian Federation, which are being looked into as part of an investigation into the country's election meddling.
The White House said the two leaders "discussed working together to resolve the very risky situation in North Korea".
He emphasised that Russian Federation opposes Pyongyang's nuclear bid, but added the USA had "provoked" Pyongyang into developing its nuclear and missile programs by spiking a 2005 deal under which North Korea agreed to halt them.
Some also believe that China is helping North Korea further develop its weapons, based on the progress it has made with submarine ballistic missile technology.
Nebenzya said North Korea won't halt its nuclear and missile programs "while it feels a direct threat to its security", and that is why Russian Federation and China have urged both sides to take steps to de-escalate the situation.
"All of these steps force us to wonder about the sincerity of statements that suggest that there is a preference for a peaceful approach to resolving the crisis" in the United States, Nebenzya said.
Later, US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called for a "sustained cessation of North Korea's threatening behaviour" before talks could occur between Washington and Pyongyang.
Trump's North Korea strategy to trigger starvation?
"If the North Koreans conduct an additional test of a nuclear bomb - their seventh - I would say 70 per cent".