Other insurgent groups in eastern Ghouta, including Islamist factions, say the Syrian government and Russian Federation are using the jihadist presence as a pretext to continue their bombardment.
There was no comment from the Syrian military.
The strikes and shelling on the suburb area also wounded 325 people.
However, the convoy's deliveries reached only 2.6 percent of the estimated 272,500 people in need of humanitarian aid, according to Ali Al-Za'tari, the UN's humanitarian coordinator in Syria.
Opposition activists say government forces have brought in reinforcements in preparation for a wider offensive on the area - the last main rebel stronghold near Damascus.
Khalid Abulabed, a field doctor in the besieged Damascus suburb, described the current situation as "crazy and catastrophic".
Factions in Ghouta fired mortars at Damascus on Tuesday, killing six people and injuring 28, Syrian state TV said.
A Syrian woman and children run for cover amid the rubble of buildings following the government bombing. ABDULMONAM EASSA AFP
The Civil Defence in eastern Ghouta, a rescue service that operates in rebel territory, said jets battered Kafr Batna, Saqba, Hammouriyeh and several other towns on Tuesday.
UNICEF's regional director for the region Geert Cappelaere was quoted at the beginning of the symbolic press release: "No words will do justice to the children killed, their mothers, their fathers and their loved ones". "When the shelling temporarily stops, they start firing missiles at us", she said.
In Geneva, the United Nations children's agency expressed outrage at the casualties among the enclave's children, saying it had run out of words.
Global monitors are sounding alarm bells about the offensive in Eastern Ghouta, but aside from the aid convoy that made it into the area last week, little else has changed in recent days aside from an uptick in the bloodshed.
"It is imperative for the (UN) Security Council to send a strong message that there will be no impunity for those who commit war crimes and crimes against humanity".
The area that has been under tight siege since a year ago where people suffer from food shortage is home to some 400,000 people as well as thousands of insurgents belonging to different factions. "They constitute a grave violation of global humanitarian law", the foreign ministry said in a statement.