"The only possible way of preserving this mineral at the Earth's surface is when it's trapped in an unyielding container like a diamond", he explained.
One of the most abundant minerals in the world - that had never before been seen on the Earth's surface - has finally been eyed by scientists, thanks to one of the world's most sought-after gems.
Subtle variations in its chemical composition tells scientists the mineral, which was brought up from a depth of about 800 km in a diamond mine in South Africa, actually started its life on the sea floor as a piece of oceanic crust, he said. Based on the research that will be published in the journal "Nature" on March 8, the researchers have estimated that the overall quantity of this mineral of Zetta tonnes i.e. 1021 tonnes buried deep inside the Earth's mantle.
The diamond was discovered less than 0.6 miles below the Earth's surface, but the researchers note in the study that it was in fact a "super-deep" diamond. The mine also holds the distinction of producing the world's largest diamond in 1905. Graham Pearson, a professor at University of Alberta (UBC) Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science stated that the mineral recently found is available only "deep" inside the Earth's mantle at a depth of 700 kilometers. So much so that it's thought to be the fourth most abundant mineral present inside the Earth. The recent find also yielded interesting information about the processes that shape Earth, offering strong evidence of a very deep "recycling" of oceanic crusts, as the authors of the study put it.
Most of the diamonds here on Earth are usually born closer to the surface at around 150 to 200 kilometers deep.
He said the particular diamond in question would have sustained more than 24 billion pascals of pressure, equivalent to 240,000 atmospheres. This discovery of a new mineral will lead to great insights about how the Earth's insides behave.
Prevented from crystallizing under high pressure, the water froze as geological activity eventually moved the diamonds to the surface.
Diamond provides the "fundamental proof" for a long time formulated the idea that slabs of oceanic crust that sink deep into the Ground, go into the lower mantle, researchers say.
"Diamonds are really unique ways of seeing what's in the Earth", Pearson concluded. According to Brandon Specktor of Live Science, the piece of CaSiO3 was visible to the naked eye once the diamond was polished, but an global team of researchers collaborated on analyzing the precious stone with X-ray and spectroscopy tests.