The U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, Nikki Haley, said President Donald Trump "has not yet made a decision about possible actions in Syria".
Reports from Damascus described multiple waves of missiles striking targets in the eastern part of the capital, where chemical weapons facilities were known to be located.
The statements were significant because the head of the Russian General Staff, Gen. Valery Gerasimov, had previously said the Russian military would respond to US airstrikes that put Russian lives at risk by shooting down the missiles and potentially the ships or planes that fired them. "A pre-designed scenario is being implemented". "We warned that such actions would not be left without consequences".
Russian Federation has been a staunch ally of Syrian President Bashar Assad's government and has helped turn the tide of war in his favour since entering the conflict in September 2015.
Since 2011, the Assad government has been locked in a deadly and protracted conflict with resistance fighters, and elements of ISIS, and has been backed by Russian forces.
In April a year ago Trump ordered Tomahawk strikes on the Shayrat Airbase in response to a chemical weapons attack on rebel-held Khan Sheikhun.
"The use of chemical weapons by anyone, anywhere, under any circumstances is illegal and utterly reprehensible", Mr Turnbull said.
Putin responded to Saturday's attack by calling the strikes "an act of aggression against a sovereign state that is at the forefront of the fight against terrorism".
The current escalation of the situation in Syria "has a destructive effect on the whole system of global relations", the Kremlin said. "History will set things right, and Washington already bears the heavy responsibility for the bloody outrage in Yugoslavia, Iraq and Libya".
The UN Security Council is to meet again on Friday, at Russia's request, to try to defuse the standoff, as United States President Donald Trump appeared to back away from imminent action, days after warning Russian Federation to "get ready" for missile strikes.
Lavrov cited planned on-site investigations in Syria by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.
Later, a White House briefing on a call between Trump and May said that they "continued their discussion of the need for a joint response to Syria's use of chemical weapons".
"We continue to observe unsafe military preparations for an illegal act of force against a sovereign state", Russian Ambassador Vassily Nebenzia told the UN Security Council.
He said Moscow has "irrefutable information that it was a fabrication".
Russian air defenses, stationed at a naval base and an airfield, were not triggered by any of the allied attacks.
Defense Secretary James Mattis appeared to have referenced Russian Federation and warned of its "disinformation campaign" in the coming days.