Lawmakers in the devolved Edinburgh assembly voted by 93 to 30 to refuse "legislative consent" for the highly-contested European Union (Withdrawal) Bill now being debated by the British parliament.
The SNP remains at loggerheads with May over whether powers returning to the United Kingdom post-Brexit should be held by Westminster or be sent to Holyrood. Now she's at risk of having to impose British sovereignty against the will of the Scottish Parliament unless there's a compromise on what the Scots are calling a "power grab".
It is still possible that a constitutional crisis might be averted if amendments to the Bill are agreed, although this is looking less likely.
But Mr Russell warned: "The UK Government can not ignore the reality of devolution or try to drown out what this Parliament says".
The Scottish Parliament passed its own version of Brexit legislation, called the Continuity Bill, in March by a margin of 95-32 to ensure it retains control of areas that are now devolved after Britain formally leaves the EU.
He said the plan, which could see some powers kept by the Westminster Parliament for up to seven years, "rides roughshod over devolution".
Lidington has said he is "open to suggestions that would improve the Bill" but has repeatedly refused to amend the legislation.
But Conservative MSP Adam Tomkins said: 'It's profoundly regrettable that we don't have a deal in Scotland to allow us to move on.
"The blame for that lies entirely with the SNP".
"It's patently obvious that Nicola Sturgeon wants a political crisis to provide cover for her independence drive. It's not in Scotland's interests that the SNP prefers picking fights to making a deal".
Meanwhile, Scottish Liberal Democrat Europe spokesman Tavish Scott said: "The Brexit process has been chaotic and the treatment of the devolved administrations has been shoddy".
He added: "It's obvious that the Greens will, as always, back the SNP today".
It is noted that the practical implications of this decision for the Scottish Parliament will be hard to achieve.
Scotland voted against independence by 55 percent in a referendum in 2014, but Sturgeon insists she has a mandate to hold a second vote since Scotland voted against Brexit by 62 percent in 2016.