Mr. Trump's move comes after Beijing announced it would retaliate in kind to planned US tariffs on $50 billion in imports from China.
The US announced plans for tariffs this spring, after an investigation into China's intellectual property practices.
If the United States publishes a new list of tariffs, Beijing will take strong countermeasures to safeguard the interests of China and its people, the ministry said.
The retaliatory moves come after Trump said last week he was pushing ahead with tariffs on $50 billion of Chinese imports.
Since June 1, steel and aluminium imports from the European Union, Canada and Mexico have been hit with tariffs of 25 percent and 10 percent, respectively.
The president ordered his administration to prepare a new package of tariffs affecting as much as $200 billion worth of China trade. "Rather than altering those practices, it is now threatening United States companies, workers, and farmers who have done nothing wrong", he said.
China's commerce ministry immediately responded by saying the U.S. "practice of extreme pressure and blackmail departed from the consensus reached by both sides during multiple negotiations and has also greatly disappointed global society".
China had offered to ramp up purchases of American goods by $70 billion to help cut its yawning trade surplus with the United States, whereas Trump had demanded a $200 billion deficit cut.
The US leader warned that after the new measures are in place - on top of existing 25 per cent tariffs on US$50 billion in Chinese imports - tariffs on another US$200 billion of Chinese goods would go forward "if China increases its tariffs yet again".
The tariffs were quickly matched by China on US exports, a move that drew the president's ire.
"It's not hard to imagine a scenario in which China encourages Saudi Arabia and Russian Federation, the world's top oil exporters and partners in the agreement to restrict output, to pump more crude", said Russell yesterday.
Mr. Trump's comments came hours after the top US diplomat accused China of engaging in "predatory economics 101" and an "unprecedented level of larceny" of intellectual property.
He has in recent weeks chose to implement steep tariffs against China and other key US allies, despite warnings from congressional lawmakers that doing so could harm American workers and erase gains made from the Republican tax package.
"China apparently has no intention of changing its unfair practices related to the acquisition of American intellectual property and technology", Mr. Trump said.