Manchester is the most liveable city in the United Kingdom, according to a major annual survey conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).
The study rates cities in the world using a number of measures, including stability, healthcare, culture and environment, as well as education and infrastructure, to calculate an overall liveability rating.
A long-running contender to the title, Vienna has succeeded in displacing Melbourne from the top spot, ending a record seven consecutive years at the head of the survey for the Australian city.
The two cities are now separated by 0.7 of a percentage point in the rankings, with Vienna scoring a near-ideal 99.1 out of 100 and Melbourne scoring 98.4.
This year, a downgraded threat of militant attacks in western Europe as well as the city's low crime rate helped nudge Vienna into first place. Osaka in Japan came in at three and the Canadian city of Calgary followed.
Osaka stands out especially, having climbed six positions, to third place, over the past six months, closing the gap with Melbourne.
"Upwards movement in the top ranked cities is a reflection of improvements seen in stability and safety across most regions in the past year", the report said.
Vancouver scored a 95 in stability and a 92.9 in infrastructure, with a ideal score in the rest.
Hamburg and Helsinki, who held tenth and ninth place previous year, have dropped out of the top ten. The top ten were largely cities viewed as safe, with a low terror threat and good access to health care and education. San Juan saw the sharpest fall of 21 places as its infrastructure took a hit after two hurricanes struck Puerto Rico in September 2017.
Bangladesh's Dhaka was second last with a score of 38 percent, with Nigeria's Lagos just ahead with a score of 38.5 percent. Almost half the cities in the survey saw their ratings improve over the a year ago.