He said Japan refused to work with the Obama administration but is working with him on a deal.
US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer held another day of meetings with Canada's Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland on a rewrite of the North American Free Trade Agreement, after reaching a deal last week with Mexico.
If the president follows through, the threatened tariffs and those already in place would more than cover the value of all goods the U.S. buys from China, according to USA government data from past year.
"Nobody has ever done what I've done".
While China's response to USA demands has been unsatisfactory, Trump is still speaking to Xi, and would be open to meeting in person, said Kudlow, director of the White House's National Economic Council.
The Ministry of Finance said it will raise export rebate rates for 397 goods, ranging from lubricants to children's books, meaning that firms shipping such products overseas will pay less value-added tax. The US imported US$505 billion of Chinese products in 2017, Census Bureau figures show.
Trump tells reporters on Air Force One that his plans to slaps taxes of up to 25 percent on Chinese imports would depend on the choices made by that country's leaders.
"That totally changes the equation", Mr Trump said.
It was unclear what those tariffs would cover.
White House Economic advisor Larry Kudlow told CNBC that talks between the USA and China were ongoing.
China has warned that it would retaliate with import taxes on $60 billion worth of USA goods.
"Because all tariffs ultimately show up as a tax on United States consumers, they will increase the cost of Apple products that our customers have come to rely on in their daily lives", the company said.
"We are still talking with China on a number of issues".
That resulted in China posting a smaller overall trade surplus of US$27.91 billion for the month.
But so far China had not met the Trump administration's requests.
While U.S. businesses in China do not yet appear to face widespread retaliation, some company officials have said they are bracing for blowback.
"We have the patience to wait and we also have the flexibility to open talks any time".
Guajardo said Thursday it would be "very strange" to sign a new NAFTA "when this trade war is pending".