"In less than two years, my administration has accomplished more than nearly any administration in the history of our country", Trump began, using the superlative language that typically elicits cheers at his rallies.
"We will not allow our workers to be victimised, our companies to be cheated", Trump said, while adding that he has "great respect and affection" for Chinese President Xi Jinping.
While Trump appeared surprised at the time - and said as much - he later claimed to reporters that that part of his speech "was meant to get some laughter".
In his speech Tuesday, he slammed countries like Iran, and discussed global trade and mass migration, two cornerstone issues of his presidential campaign.
The US pulled out of the Iran nuclear deal in May, leaving the other countries who were signatories to the deal scrambling to make it work anyways.
In an exchange with reporters after his speech, Trump expressed hope that the US relationship with Iran could eventually follow the same trajectory as its relationship with North Korea - where the prospect of sanctions relief has led Pyongyang to discuss ending its nuclear program.
"It is ironic that the USA government does not even hide its plan for overthrowing the same government it invites to talks", Rouhani said.
The US leader said his meeting with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un in Singapore in June had led to developments unimaginable only a few months ago. But in this case, unexpected took the form of Trump being mocked with laughter by the leaders of almost every nation on the planet.
Trump used his speech to call for worldwide trade reforms and insist that his main objective as president is to protect American sovereignty.
The accord, negotiated under Democratic U.S. President Barack Obama, lifted most global sanctions against Tehran in exchange for Iran curbing its nuclear program.
Trump said that the USA will honor the right of every nation to pursue its own customs, beliefs and traditions and that he will never tell other nations how to live, work or worship.
Some Iranian insiders have said any talks between Rouhani and Trump would effectively kill the existing nuclear accord.
In his speech, Trump said the USA is a "stronger, safer and richer country" than when he took office in January 2017.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, hit back at these countries for attempting to subvert US sanctions, saying that they were bolstering Iran as the "number one state sponsor of terror".
"Iran has acted very badly", said Mr. Trump.
Mr Trump told the UN General Assembly on Tuesday, "The U.S. will not be taken advantage of any longer".