NATO formally accused Russia on Tuesday of breaching the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, which rid Europe of land-based nuclear missiles, issuing a statement that supported US accusations of Russian violations.
Speaking to journalists after a meeting of Nato foreign ministers in Brussels, Pompeo outlined longstanding United States allegations of Russian violations of the cold war-era treaty with the development and deployment of a new ground-launched cruise missile, which he said was part of a wider pattern of lawlessness by the Kremlin.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on Tuesday warned Russian Federation that if it did not dismantle its 9M279 mobile ground-launched missile system, Washington would no longer be bound by the treaty.
Pompeo said there was no reason why the United States "should continue to cede this crucial military advantage" to rival powers.
The INF was a bilateral treaty between the U.S. and the then Soviet Union, so it puts no restrictions on other major military actors like China.
Trump's chief diplomat Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was at North Atlantic Treaty Organisation headquarters for a ministerial meeting on Tuesday and won support for a tough stance from the allies.
"It makes no sense for the United States to remain in a treaty that constrains our ability to respond to Russia's violation", Pompeo said, adding that: "The United States today declares Russian Federation in material breach of the treaty and we will suspend our obligations unless Russian Federation returns to full and verifiable compliance".
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization signaled Russian Federation must comply soon with a landmark arms-control agreement or face the deal's demise, papering over internal differences about a USA threat to withdraw from the pact.
The INF treaty was a US-Soviet agreement aimed at reducing the superpowers' nuclear arsenal.
Until then, Pompeo said, the United States would not "test or produce or deploy any systems" that would breach the treaty.
Moscow has denied its new missile violates the INF but, after several years denying its existence, it has been vague on its capabilities. Moscow has returned accusations of non-compliance on the U.S., arguing that United States bases in Eastern Europe are not defensive but offensive and could potentially be used to target Russian Federation.
The prospect of USA missiles on European soil is a concern for states including Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, whose representatives have urged Mr Pompeo to continue with diplomacy in fear of a European arms race.
"I regret that we now most likely will see the end of the INF Treaty", NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said, adding that "no arms control agreement will work if it is only respected by one party".