USA officials have long complained that China has failed to live up to trade promises, often citing pledges to resume imports of American beef that took more than a decade to implement. The delegations were led by deputy US Trade Representative Jeffrey Gerrish on the US side and vice commerce minister Wang Shouwen on the Chinese side.
"We will be on high alert and will closely monitor the air and sea situation to strongly defend our sovereignty and security", the Chinese Defense Ministry declared on Monday, while the Chinese Foreign Ministry urged the U.S.to "immediately cease this kind of provocation".
The truce came after the two sides imposed import duties on more than $300 billion of each other's goods.
Trump has given U.S. Trade Representative Lighthizer until March 1 to negotiate an accord with the Chinese on "structural changes" to Beijing's state-driven economic model.
"We are moving towards a more balanced and reciprocal trade agreement with China", she said, adding that no one knows yet what that agreement will look like or when it will be ready.
The Chinese commerce ministry merely said the talks had been "detailed and extensive" and that a foundation had been laid for resolution of each other's concerns.
They agreed to maintain close contact, the statement said.
"There are a lot of different opinions and disputes, but both sides need these kind of collisions at this time, and to make known their demands, positions and views to the other party", he said, adding that the next round of talks would be about bridging these differences.
The Chinese government is reported to be releasing a statement on the talks tomorrow.
Chinese officials have suggested that Beijing might alter its industrial plans but rejected pressure to abandon what they consider a path to prosperity and global influence.
Chinese exports to the United States held up despite the tariff hikes, but that was due partly to exporters rushing to fill orders before any more increases hit.
Trump, who has been accusing China of indulging in unfair trade practices contributing to the huge trade deficit amounting to United States dollars 375 billion, on Tuesday said the trade talks with Beijing were going on "very well". In recent weeks, China has shown some signs of flexibility or acceding to the American demands.
The discussions are the first face-to-face interactions between the US and China since both presidents met in Argentina and agreed to a temporary truce in their tit-for-tat tariff war.
There has been some indication of Chinese moves to address concerns regarding forced technology transfer, including recently proposed legislation that would bar local governments from forcing foreign firms to transfer technology or illegally restrict market access.
Russia is reportedly ranked as China's tenth biggest trade partner, while China remains a major importer of Russian produce, accounting for 15 percent of the country's worldwide trade as of 2017.
Notably, in Thursday's press conference in Beijing, Gao avoided verifying some of the specifics of the USTR press release, including the promise for China to purchase increased amounts of USA goods as well as the specific list of issues covered.
"Talks with China are going very well!".
"The earlier escalation of the trade conflict between the US and China and souring bilateral relations appear to have given way to a more conciliatory approach since early December", he wrote in a note Thursday.