Following months of fiery debate - and measles outbreaks - a new law banning unvaccinated children from Italy's classrooms has come into effect.
Parents risk being fined up to €500 (£425; $560) if they send their unvaccinated children to school. The 2017 law aims to combat the rising number of measles cases across the country by mandating that school students receive 10 difference vaccinations.
Children have been reportedly told to not turn up to school unless they can prove they have been vaccinated.
It also fines parents of children between 6 and 16 years old about $560 if they can not prove their children have been vaccinated. The study has long since been discredited but the confidence on vaccines has been damaged to a great extent.
The BBC wrote that the law was passed to bolster flagging Italian vaccination rates, which is in part due to a growing movement of anti-vaccination activists (widely known as antiaxxers).
For years, confusion about vaccines has reigned in Italy.
"Italy's measles vaccine coverage was par with Namibia, lower than Ghana", San Raffaele University in Milan microbiology and virology professor Roberto Burioni told CNN previous year.
On Monday - the last day for parents to provide documentation proving their children had been properly vaccinated - the Italian health authority released figures claiming a national immunisation rate at or very close to 95% for children born in 2015, depending on which vaccine was being discussed.
A policy named after former health minister, the Lorenzin law, makes it compulsory for children under six to get a range of immunizations before attending school.