The strike's platform calls for 100 percent renewable energy by 2030; halting all fossil fuel infrastructure projects; basing government policy on scientific research; requiring environmental education in schools; banning fracking and mountaintop mining; and changing the agricultural industry, among other measures.
"We are striking because our world leaders have yet to acknowledge, prioritize, or properly address our climate crisis", according to the Youth Climate Strike's website.
"The government just needs to change some things, which is why if we go on strike on a school day then they'll notice and they might actually do something about it", said 14-year-old New Zealand student Inese, who did not want her surname made public.
Voting will take place in October, with the winners chosen through a majority vote.
University students congregate on campus before they leave
Young people make up more than half of the global population. We'll be walking from the University of Malta to the Parliament building in Valletta, to raise awareness on our future and our planet! In Scotland, protests are being staged in at least 18 locations, including Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Stirling, and as far afield as Ullapool, Fort William, South Uist, Orkney and Eigg.
The Youth Climate Strike will take place in more than 130 cities in the USA, and in 90 countries.
The statement came after ESF's West Island School, a private worldwide coeducational in Pokfulam, told parents that any student absence on Friday would be registered as "unauthorised".
However, earlier this month City of Edinburgh Council said pupils could attend a planned rally outside the Scottish Parliament as long as they had permission of parents or carers.
It was believed to be the first local authority in Scotland to consider such actions as an "authorised absence from school".
They include: Argyll and Bute, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee, Eilean Siar, Fife, Glasgow, Highland, and Renfrewshire. "It would be utterly wrong for them to be silenced through fear of punishment".